South Natick in the Revolution

 

South Natick had been on the map for 125 years at the time of the American Revolution. When the fighting began, the men and women of the thriving little farming village were in on the action even before the first shots were fired at Lexington on April 19, 1775.

The Minutemen and other patriot farmers from Natick didn’t make it to Concord and Lexington in time to take part in that legendary firefight, but two months later more than 40 Natick officers and soldiers fought with the 5th Middlesex County Regiment at Bunker Hill near Boston.

South Natick, since the earliest colonial times, had been a way station for travelers en route to Boston, Hartford, and New York. Inns and taverns were essential for travelers, and also important in the commercial and public life of the community. Peletiah Morse built his tavern at 33-35 Eliot Street in 1748, and it was one of the designated meeting places for the men who led Natick’s participation in the war. The tavern grounds often were used for soldiers’ drills, and recent research suggests that Paul Revere stayed at the tavern and participated in drills with his unit. The original Morse Tavern structure still stands on the Riverside Montessori School campus.

The Peletiah Morse Tavern (built 1748) on Eliot Street, where the South Natick militia gathered.

The Peletiah Morse Tavern (built 1748) on Eliot Street, where the South Natick militia gathered.

 

Col. Hezekiah Broad, whose 95 Eliot Street home was near the current Memorial Elementary School, was elected in October 1774 to be Natick’s representative to the Massachusetts Provincial Congress. The Provincial Congress, like those in other colonies, was an illegal gathering that disputed the authority of the British colonial government. Peletiah Morse was a member of Natick’s Committee of Correspondence, a wartime assembly established to channel news and plans among Massachusetts townspeople as the prewar boycott of British goods got under way, and as preparations for resistance and revolution were carried out. Natick voted to pay its taxes directly to the Provincial Congress instead of the British governor, and named 18 men to be Minutemen ready to fight at a moment’s notice.

There is some evidence that, as 700 British redcoats were marching to Lexington, Natick’s first warning was received at the home of Oliver Bacon at 185 Eliot Street (near the site of today’s Natick Community Organic Farm). Paul Revere and William Dawes were the original messengers dispatched from Boston, but men and women from “every Middlesex village and farm” helped to spread the alarm to their neighboring communities after Revere and Dawes had passed through. Minuteman Capt. Thomas Sawin IV lived at 79 South Street, and his home was used for wartime meetings. His wife’s niece, Abigail Smith, rode out to shout the news—“The British are coming!”—on the fateful night of April 18.

Newly elected President George Washington passed through South Natick in 1789 and reportedly visited Col. Broad, who had served with him during the war. Historians have not mentioned whether Washington actually slept there.

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The men and women of Natick saw the revolution coming, and they added their patriotic voices to the clamor for “peace, liberty, and safety…to be restored and established in our once happy land.”

On June 20, 1776—two weeks before the Declaration of Independence was approved in Philadelphia by the Second Continental Congress—the Natick Town Meeting endorsed Natick’s own “Resolve for Independence.” Similar public commitments were being made throughout Massachusetts. In Natick, Rev. Stephen Badger, Captain John Coolidge, and Daniel Morse IV used the dense patriotic style of their time to draft the “Resolve,” putting “our lives and fortunes” on the line to support the anticipated action of the Congress in resisting the “glaring impropriety, incapacity and fatal tendency” of King George III and the British government “to legislate for these Colonies.” The Natick patriots were ready to fight for their independence if necessary.

 

Natick’s “Resolve for Independence”

 

“In consideration of the many acts of the British Parliament, passed in diverse sessions of the same, within about thirteen years past, relating to said Colonies, especially those within the two or three last years, by which every idea of moderation, justice, humanity and Christianity is entirely laid aside, and those principles and measures adopted and pursued which would disgrace the most unenlightened and uncivilized tribe of aboriginal natives, in the most interior part of this extensive continent; and also in consideration of the glaring impropriety, incapacity and fatal tendency of any State whatever, at the distance of three thousand miles to legislate for these Colonies, which at the same time are so numerous, so knowing, and so capable of legislating, or to have a negative [veto] upon those laws which they in their respective Assemblies and by their united representation in General Court will from time to time enact and establish for themselves; and for diverse other considerations which for brevity’s sake we omit to mention…

…we, the inhabitants of Natick, in town meeting assembled, do hereby declare, agreeably to the aforementioned Resolve, that should the Honorable Continental Congress declare these American Colonies independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain, we will with our lives and fortunes join with the other inhabitants of the Colony, and with those of the other Colonies, in supporting them in said measure, which we look upon to be both important and necessary; and which, if we may be permitted to suggest an opinion, the sooner it is entered into the fewer difficulties shall we have to conflict with; and the grand object of peace, liberty, and safety, will be more likely speedily to be restored and established in our once happy land.”

Approved June 20, 1776

Selected sources and additional reading:

Natick Historical Society collections.